ECI - Updated: on 2019-08-23 14:47:41 - By Marie ANDRE
DumperLarge construction sites and quarries
A dumper is a very imposing construction site machine appreciated for its large capacity to transport loads of all types on any kind of terrains. It can also be found in quarries and for mining operations, but also for the construction industry where smaller versions of a dumper are often used so they can go on public roads and can intervene on different construction sites.
The development of the dumper market throughout history
The dumper’s history started in the 1950s in England in the farming industry. The Doe Triple-D designed by Ernest Doe & Sons is the ancestor of the dumper we now know. It is made of a farming tractor since it was created by merging two tractors by taking out the front axles and tyres by linking them through a turning hub. This farming machine, often called “tandem tractor” has two engine and four driving wheel, which gives it a lot of power for the time. The tandem tractor has inspired the Volvo branch that manufactured the first articulated dumper in 1966 (the DR 631) and, in 1968, the first six driving wheel dumper (the DR 660).
The first dumpers couldn’t have a useful load over 10 tonnes, but the improvements added during the 1970s and 1980s have helped create machines that are more and more efficient and performant. The modern dumpers can transport very important loads up to 50 tonnes for the articulated dumpers and no less than 326 tonnes for the most powerful rigid dumper.
The mini-dumpers are another machine category that are used to transport materials. They have the same characteristics as the bigger dumpers, but are offered in miniature version, under different types, for little work on rough terrains. There are manual mini dumpers (they are driven standing like a wheelbarrow, but they can transport heavier loads), and motorized dumpers with a tipper with hydraulic cylinders, a seat for the driver, four driving wheel, etc.
Articulated or rigid dumper?
Whether articulated or rigid, a dumper helps transport loads from a place to another. This use makes it close to a tipper truck but numerous characteristics are used to differentiate them starting with the different domains of use.
Dumpers are usually used in the construction industry and for road work, the most powerful models are usually reserved for mining or quarries. There are two categories of dumpers:
The rigid chassis dumpers
These are the most imposing machines we can see in the open mines. The rigid dumpers can transport a useful load way more important than articulated dumpers. These machines are made in one piece, that’s why they are called rigid dumpers : they don’t have any articulation and only have four wheels, that can either be power wheels or not. Track rigid dumpers are also designed for military use.
The articulated chassis dumpers
These machines have three axles, meaning six power wheels. In comparison with a rigid chassis dumper, the articulated dumper is made of two parts : the tipper, at the back of the machine, and the tractor, which is the cab and all the mechanical elements. They are assembled by a bearing and two hydraulic cylinders that help the machine by spinning horizontally. These characteristics make articulated dumpers a versatile machine with great mobility, it can be used on rough or muddy terrains. However, its loading capacity is inferior to the loading capacity of a rigid dumper, as well as its top speed.
Description : composantes d'un Tombereau
Dumpers and safe driving
The driving of a dumper means the driver needs to have a certain knowledge regarding safety. Indeed, even though construction machines get better and better every year and manufacturers try hard to make them safer, dumpers are still dangerous machines which perfect use is crucial. It is especially true for rigid dumpers where it’s difficult to have a complete visual contact for the driver and the material tipping needs lots of attention to avoid tipping the whole machine.
The main dumper makes
Volvo is an historical make of dumpers, that developped many rigid and articulated machines throughout history. Caterpillar, Terex and Komatsu are also makes that don’t need to prove themselves anymore and offer several models of dumpers with their efficiency and global performances being the common ground. Regarding mini-dumpers, Ausa is probably the make offering the most models in their dumper ranges.
Technology to help performances
The construction machines such as dumpers constantly change. Performance and safety are the key words for the different machine manufacturers. Dumpers now benefit from most of the embedded technologies for material tipping, cameras to improve visibility or systems that increase the grip of the articulated dumpers.